Detection of Bias in Machine Learning Models for Predicting Deaths Caused by COVID-19


  • Fatimatus Zachra Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia
  • Setio Basuki Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia



bias, COVID-19, DALEX, machine learning, protected attributes


The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted global health, resulting in numerous fatalities and presenting substantial challenges to national healthcare systems due to a sharp increase in cases. Key to managing this crisis is the rapid and accurate identification of COVID-19 infections, a task that can be enhanced with Machine Learning (ML) techniques. However, ML applications can also generate biased and potentially unfair outcomes for certain demographic groups. This paper introduces a ML model designed for detecting both COVID-19 cases and biases associated with specific patient attributes. The model employs Decision Tree and XGBoost algorithms for case detection, while bias analysis is performed using the DALEX library, which focuses on protected attributes such as age, gender, race, and ethnicity. DALEX works by creating an "explainer" object that represents the model, enabling exploration of the model's functions without requiring in-depth knowledge of its workings. This approach helps pinpoint influential attributes and uncover potential biases within the model. Model performance is assessed through accuracy metrics, with the Decision Tree algorithm achieving the highest accuracy at 99% following Bayesian hyperparameter optimization. However, high accuracy does not ensure fairness, as biases related to protected attributes may still persist.


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How to Cite

Zachra, F. and Basuki, S. 2024. Detection of Bias in Machine Learning Models for Predicting Deaths Caused by COVID-19. Jurnal ELTIKOM : Jurnal Teknik Elektro, Teknologi Informasi dan Komputer. 8, 1 (Jun. 2024), 26–33. DOI: